Tag: Keynesian

Peer Steinbrück, the German finance minister, has ridiculed the UK’s VAT cut and accused Gordon Brown of ‘crass Keynesianism’ in cutting VAT by 2.5 percentage points. He argued that the fiscal stimulus will raise the level of UK public debt to such an extent that it will take a generation to pay off. Gordon Brown has dismissed the attack as ‘internal German politics’, a stance that was given some credibility when Angela Merkel threw her weight behind a €200bn Europe-wide fiscal stimulus plan, seeming thereby to contradict the views of her own finance minister.

Brown’s VAT cut just crass Keynesianism, say Germans Guardian (11/12/08)
Germany attacks ‘depressing’ UK economic rescue Times Online (11/12/08)
Brown hits back at German criticism of his economic rescue plan ahead of summit Times Online (11/12/08)
Angela Merkel plays Scrooge. Thank goodness Times Online (11/12/08)
Angela Merkel throws weight behind Brown’s fiscal stimulus approach Guardian (11/12/08)


  1. Why may the boost to aggregate demand from the fiscal measures announced in the pre-Budget report be less than the Chancellor hoped?
  2. What would be the effect on the budget deficit if the Chancellor had given no fiscal boost to the economy and the recession, as a result, was deeper?
  3. Can Keynesianism ever be “crass”?
  4. How would you design a fiscal policy for maximum impact in combatting a recession?

Paul Krugman won the Nobel Prize for Economics in 2008. He won the prize for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity, but he is also well known in academic circles for his work on international finance. In the article below, he looks at the foundations of the current financial crisis. He explains the history of the crisis, the action that has been taken by governments around the world, the likely success of the policies and also the impact of the crisis on the real economy. This is perhaps the issue that is of most concern to us as economists. With recession having taken a grip on many countries, it is important for governments to understand the root causes of the crisis to ensure that their policies address these. The article is an edited extract from The Return of Depression Economics and The Crisis of 2008, by Paul Krugman.

We all go together when we go Guardian (6/12/08)


  1. Examine the role of the US housing market in the origins of the current financial crisis.
  2. What is meant by the ‘shadow banking system’? How does the regulatory approach to the shadow banking system differ from that of the mainstream banking system?
  3. “What’s really worrying is the loss of policy traction: the economy is stalling despite repeated efforts by policy-makers to get it going again.” What does Krugman mean by policy traction? Discuss the possible causes of this policy traction.
  4. Explain why Krugman believes that the financial rescue package will not be sufficient to turn the US economy around.
  5. Assess Krugman’s argument that the only way out of the crisis is a “good old Keynesian fiscal stimulus”..

The Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire was the location for a historically significant meeting in the summer of 1944. John Maynard Keynes was part of the British negotiating team at a meeting to plan the post World War II economic order. As a result of the meeting an adjustable peg system of semi-fixed exchange rates was developed and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD – now part of the World Bank Group) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) were also born. As a result of this meeting the small rural location of Bretton Woods has moved into the economics lexicon. The institutions born out of this meeting have been subject to considerable criticism in recent years and in the first article linked to below, George Monbiot argues that it is unfair to attach this criticism to Lord Keynes. With a recent meeting of the G20 having been dubbed as Bretton Woods II, the original meeting and its outcomes have been thrown back into the limelight.

Keynes is innocent: the toxic spawn of Bretton Woods was no plan of his Guardian (18/11/08)
How Bretton Woods reshaped the world Guardian (14/11/08)
Shaping the world: Bretton Woods 1944 Guardian (14/11/08)
It takes two Guardian (5/12/08)


  1. Write a short paragraph summarising the outcomes of the Bretton Woods conference in 1944.
  2. Explain the role in the world financial system of (a) the World Bank and (b) the IMF.
  3. Assess the possible validity of the criticisms that have been levelled at the IMF. See particularly the George Monbiot article.
  4. Using diagrams as appropriate, explain how the system of semi-fixed exchange rates negotiated at Bretton Woods worked to maintain economic stability.
  5. Examine the principal reasons for the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system.

The Chancellor’s pre-Budget report was a massive political and economic gamble. The government has clearly recognised the potential seriousness of the economic situation and, in an attempt to avoid a prolonged recession, has injected £21bn into the UK economy in the form of tax cuts and spending increases. The headline grabbing changes were a cut in VAT and an increase in the top rate of income tax to 45% for those earning over £150,000 per year, but there was a raft of other changes including £3bn of public-sector infrastructure projects being brought forward.

Will this fiscal kick be enough to prevent a deep recession? The Chancellor clearly thinks so. He has amended his forecasts for economic growth to acknowledge that GDP will fall by 1% in 2009, but he believes growth will bounce back to 1.75% in 2010. The links below are to a selection of articles relating to the pre-Budget report, but there are plenty of other sites offering discussion and analysis of the issues relating to this unprecendented Keynesian fiscal boost.

Pre-Budget Report: Alistair Darling’s £1 trillion debt gamble Times Online (25/11/08)

Pre-budget report 2008 Guardian (25/11/08)
Pre-Budget report 2008 BBC News Online (25/11/08)
Average earners lose out in PBR BBC News Online (25/11/08)
Pre-Budget Report – the documents BBC News Online (25/11/08) Links to all pre-budget report documents as pdf files
Robinson and Peston analysis of PBR BBC News Online (25/11/08) Video from the Daily Politics show
Darling needs to cure a nation hooked on debt Guardian (24/11/08)
Darling unveils borrowing gamble BBC News Online (24/11/08)
Analysis: is this the death of New Labour? Times Online (24/11/08)
Alistair Darling announces £20bn economic boost Times Online (24/11/08)
Alistair Darling’s £20bn tax giveaway Times Online (24/11/08)
The mother of all gambles Guardian (24/11/08)
Obama and Darling: compare and contrast Guardian (24/11/08) Video comparing the packages announced by Alistair Darling and Barack Obama
The £21bn tax gamble Guardian (25/11/08)
Call this a cure? Guardian (25/11/08)


  1. Write a short paragraph outlining the main policies set out in the pre-Budget report.
  2. Evaluate the likely success of the policies announced in the pre-Budget report in preventing a prolonged recession for the UK economy.
  3. Discuss the short-term and long-term impact on the UK money markets of the high levels of borrowing required to fund the tax and spending changes set out in the 2008 pre-Budget report.
  4. Assess the likely impact of the increase in the top tax rate of income tax to 45% on (i) consumer expenditure growth, (ii) tax revenues, and (iii) the incentive for higher rate tax payers to work harder.
  5. Discuss whether a fiscal solution, such as that set out in the pre-budget report, or a monetary policy solution will be more effective at preventing a prolonged recession in the UK..