The Chinese economy was, for some time, the beacon of the world economy, posting strong growth and giving a much needed boost to demand in other countries. However, the weakening Chinese economy is now causing serious concerns around the world and not least in China itself.
China’s stock market on Monday 11th January closed down 5.3%, with the Hong Kong Index down by 2.8%. These falls suggest a continuing downward trajectory this week, following the 10% decline on Chinese markets last week. Today, further falls were caused, at least in part, by uncertainty over the direction of the Chinese currency, the yuan. Volatility in the currency is expected to continue with ongoing depreciation pressures and adding to this is continuing concerns about deflation.
The barrage of bad news on key economic indicators may well mean significant intervention by Chinese authorities to try to avoid its slowest growth in 25 years. However, there are also concerns about China’s ability to manage its economic policy, given recent events. IG’s Angus Nicholson said:
“Global markets are still in the grips of China fears, and it is uncertain whether the Chinese government can do enough to reassure global investors.”
Similar sentiments were echoed by Paul Mackel, head of emerging markets FX research at HSBC:
“Different signals about foreign exchange policy have wrong-footed market participants and we are wary in believing that an immediate calmness will soon emerge.”
Perhaps key to turning this downward trend on its head, will be the Chinese consumers. With a traditionally larger saving ratio than many Western economies, it may be that this ‘cushion’ will give growth a boost, through the contribution of consumer spending. As we know, aggregate demand comprises consumption, investment, government spending and net exports (AD = C + I + G + X – M). Consumer spending (C) increased from 50.2% in 2014 to 58.4% in 2015, according to HIS Global Insight. A similar increase for 2016 would certainly be welcome.
As oil prices continue to fall and concerns remain over China’s weak economic data, we may well soon begin to see just how interdependent the world has become. Many economists suggest that we are now closer to the start of the next recession than we are to the end of the last one and this latest turmoil on Chinese stock markets may do little to allay the fears that the world economy may once again be heading for a crash. The following articles consider the Chinese turmoil.
Free lunch: China’s weakest link Financial Times, Martin Sandbu (11/01/16)
China’s stocks start the week with sharp losses BBC News (11/01/16)
China shares fall 5% to hit-three-month low The Guardian (11/01/16)
China’s resilient shoppers face fresh test from market headwinds Bloomberg (11/01/16)
China shares head lower again on price data Sky News (11/01/16)
U.S., European shares slip as China, oil woes continue Reuters, Lewis Krauskopf (11/01/16)
U.S. stocks drop as oil tumbles again Wall Street Journal (11/01/16)
China escalates emergency stock market intervention The Telegraph, Mehreen Kahn (05/01/16)
- How are prices and values determined on the stock market?
- Share prices in China have been falling significantly since the start of 2016. Has it been caused by demand or supply-side factors? Use a demand and supply diagram to illustrate this.
- Why has the volatility of the Chinese currency added further downward pressure to Chinese stock markets?
- With the expected increase in consumer spending in China, how will this affect AD? Use a diagram to explain your answer and using this, outline what we might expect to happen to economic growth and unemployment in China.
- Why are there serious concerns about the weak level of inflation in China? Surely low prices are good for exports.
- Should the world economy be concerned if China’s economy does continue to slow?
- To what extent are oil prices an important factor in determining the future trajectory of the world economy?